SAMPLE LAB REPORT TO LARGE AND SMALL HOMEOTHERMIC MAMMALS Instructor: Dr.
Garrison TO LARGE AND SMALL HOMEOTHERMIC MAMMALSIntroductionAll life as we know it requires the expenditure of energy, and the rate with which this energy is used is defined as the metabolic (Sherwood, 2004) Help with Report Writing guides you through the sections of a typical lab report in physiology. What you will learn from using Help with Writing: the overall structure and purpose of a short scientific paper in physiology; what kind of information belongs in different sections Please enable pop-ups in order to view this section .
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In contrast, poikilothermic animals assume the temperature of their surroundings, and their only method of controlling their temperatures is by behavior. For example, a turtle sitting on a log in the sunshine may have a temperature higher than that of a mammal, but would have to dive into the water to cool down (Prosser, 1973).
In addition, since heat is lost through the body surface (i. the skin), one might expect that small mammals would have a higher metabolic rate than larger ones, because their surface area to volume ratio is greater (Goldstein, 1977). Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory exercise was to test the null hypothesis that metabolic rates of poikilothermic animals are greater than or equal to those of homeothermic animals, and that metabolic rates of large homeotherms are greater than or equal to those of small homeotherms.
(Ho: mice ≤ humans ≤ frogs; Ha: mice >humans >frogs. ) Materials and MethodsTen mice and 10 frogs of known weights were placed in separate metabolism chambers containing a layer of soda lime.
The chambers were sealed with a large rubber stopper fitted with a moistened, calibrated glass tube. After a 15 min equilibration period, the tube was sealed with soap bubbles.
The time required for the bubbles to transverse a distance corresponding to a particular volume (1. 0 mL for the frogs and mice, respectively) was measured in triplicate.
The metabolic rates of 10 human subjects were determined with a Benedict-Roth metabolism apparatus (Slabhead, 1983) Jump to Methods on how to study anatomy and physiology effectively - Or my counterpart lab colleagues to do in-lab contests and get free start or set the .
All gas volumes were corrected to standard conditions of temperature and pressure assuming dryness (STPD). Statistical significance was assessed using Student's "t-test" (Johnson, 1984).
ResultsMetabolic rates of mice were statistically significantly higher than those of both frogs (p< . 05), and those of humans were significantly higher than those of frogs (p< . Thus, there was a statistically significant failure of the data to support the null hypothesis, so the alternative hypothesis (Ha: mice > humans >frogs) was supported.
A comparison of metabolic rates of poikilothermic animals (frogs) and large and small mammals (mice and humans). Indeed, the metabolic rates of mice were about 8. However, the difference between mice and humans is considered to be a conservative estimate because there was evidence of leakage in the Benedict-Roth apparatus, which would result in excessive values for the human metabolic rate.
In any case, these results were interpreted to mean that there is an inverse relationship between metabolic rate and body size in homeotherms, but not between homeotherms and poikilotherms, since the frogs were smaller .
Basal metabolic rate is the minimal wakeful energy expenditure (Fox, 1984) To get an A in the report, you really have to have a good discussion and demonstrate a Software intended to detect plagiarism within lab reports will be used..
It is influenced by factors such as sex (Jones, 1978), hormones (Swiveltisch, 1981), and diet (Lumpkin, 1980).
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08 Cal/hr/M2 reported by Squire, Smith, Dillingham, & Jackson (1967b). The average relative values found in this study are consistent with those above, but the absolute values are much higher, because activity may have influenced the experiment.
The frogs were the least active, followed by humans and the relatively active mice. Since any activity requires energy, metabolic rate was probably exaggerated in the mammals.
However, these differences were expected since none of the animals were under basal conditions. According to Prosser (1973), oxygen consumption in exercise may be 15 to 20 times greater in exercise than in the resting state.
In addition, the values obtained by Squire et al.
(1967a) resulted from both male and female subjects, but males, which typically have higher metabolic rates, were used in this study SAMPLE LAB REPORT Course: Biology 270 (Human Physiology) one might expect that small mammals would have a higher metabolic rate than larger by a corresponding increase in metabolic activity in order that body temperature be .
When large and small adults of a species or the same general types of animals are compared, the total metabolism is higher in larger animals, but the metabolic rate is higher in small animals.
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For example, if M = total oxygen consumed per unit time and W = body weight, then the power function is expressed asM = KWbwhere the constant "b" is obtained from the slope of a plot of the logarithm of oxygen consumption against the logarithm of body weight. The constant "b" gives the rate at which metabolism changes with size. If metabolism is directly proportional to weight, then b = 1.
This means that in similar species or during growth, metabolism increases less than does body mass (Prosser, 1973).
As the volume of an object increases as a cube, the surface area increases as a square (Goldstein, 1977). When this principle is applied to homeothermic animals, it is apparent that as the size of the animal decreases, its surface area to volume ratio will also increase and must be accompanied by a corresponding increase in metabolic activity in order that body temperature be maintained in spite of the greater radiational cooling.
By the same token, an organism that expends no energy to maintain a constant body temperature would have a much lower metabolic rate.
Small homeotherms have higher metabolic rates than large ones Help me do a physiology laboratory report Formatting US Letter Size 1 hour British Should i buy an physiology laboratory report single spaced 23650 words .
Hormones as determining factors in human metabolic rate.
APPENDIXSample Calculations15 ml/243 sec x 744 mm Hg/760 mm Hg x 273 K/300 K x 60 sec/min x 60 min/hr x 4. 8 cal/ml oxygen x 1/65 cm2 x 1 Cal/1,000 cal x 10,000 cm2/M2