Cassini image of Saturnwhy essays?You may think that writing essays is irrelevant to a scientificcareer.

Worse, your school teachers may have allowed you, or – worsestill – even encouraged you to think so However, writing a physics lab report is almost an everyday task to a science student. Such writings are But, we will assign only a physics writer for your purpose..

Labs - error analysis | department of physics and astronomy

Why is this? A great discovery only advances science ifthe scientific community knows about it. Tycho Brahe's superbnaked-eye observations of the planets might have had no consequenceswhatsoever if his young protege Johannes Kepler had not had access tothem.

As it is, by giving Kepler the data needed to formulate histhree laws of planetary motion, they provided one of the main inputsinto Newton's laws of motion and the birth of modern science. A great invention only makes you money ifsomeone builds it.

Even commercial research, which will not bepublished outside the company, has to be communicated inside it:someone has to write the patent application, the instructions for theengineers who are going to build it, and the operating manual for thepeople who are going to buy and use it. Dyson doesn't make all hisvacuum cleaners with his own hands! Bureaucracy rules.

Scientists haveto write grant proposals to fund their research (not to mentionlecture notes and Guides to First Year Astronomy!). Heads of departments need to report to the UniversityVice-Chancellor, or the company Board of Directors. Everybody needsto write at least one decent job application! In short, effectivewriting is an essential career skill for a university graduate,regardless of discipline.

steps to a good essayWhat makes a good essay? Clearly the answer depends on the nature ofthe task. An article on the Milky Way Galaxy for a children'sencyclopaedia would be very different from a technical review paper.

The most important criterion is that the essayshould convey its information effectively to its intendedaudience.

The essential steps to writing a good essay aretherefore: Read the brief REQUIRED TEXT: You must purchase the Hands on Astronomy Laboratory NO LAB REPORTS will be accepted late, so be sure to have them with you and to .

This is akin to the "read the question" advice for examinations: youwill not get a good mark if you do not deliver what you were askedfor.

Astronomy 1022l, section 0471 - personal.psu.edu

Who are you writing this essay for? In an assessed essay or report,the target audience should be specified in the instructions: your labreports are to be written for a scientifically trained readerwho is unfamiliar with the particular experiment you arereporting; the essay you will write in year 3 is intended for a graduatephysicist. Once you have identified the audience, decide what you need to includein your essay.

What background knowledge can you expect your audienceto have already? Which specialised terms need to be explained? Howmuch technical detail should you include? Plan how you're going to say it The communications skills you develop in writing good lab reports will be useful to you in particularly true in astronomy where one individual's work is used decades later by and your classmates will help you get started with Cricket Graph..

Your essay needs to have a good flow, moving smoothly from one topicto the next without repetition or sudden changes of subject. Arrangeyour material so that it is in a logical order (in lab reports, notethat this may not be the order of the lab script – sometimes the orderthat makes the best use of your time in the lab is not the mostlogical order scientifically).

Make sure that you have an introduction setting out the conclusion explaining the significance of theresults. You will probably want to write down your plan and use it as achecklist when you write your essay.

With experience, some people canplan essays in their heads, but this is not a good strategy for abeginner. Don't expect to come out with the perfect essay on the first attempt:assume that your first shot is going to be a draft, and leave timebefore the deadline to revise it.

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If your tutor is the person who will haveto mark the final answer, he or she may ask you to give your draft tosomeone else, such as a lab demonstrator; don't be offended by this –it's done in the interests of fairness, so that your essay will bemarked on the same basis as everyone else's Purchase your lab report at Pro-Papers.com ☝! The tips presented above should be enough for writing a good lab report. Physics, biology, mathematics, chemistry, anatomy, physiology - all these branches of science are developing .

plagiarismWork which is assessed as part of your module grade must be your own original work.

In the case of anessay or lab report, this means that you must not copy material,exactly or nearly exactly, from another source: the introduction ofyour lab report must not be copied from the lab script. You can usethe information from another source, provided you reference itproperly, but you must not use someone else's words – doing so is plagiarism, and is not only dishonest and unethical, but alsoillegal (violation of copyright).

Readthese guidelines, and make sure you understand what they mean –if in doubt, consult your tutor. The University also provides an Information Skills Tutorial on plagiarism: work through this, especially slides 8-15, before writing your essay.

assessmentEssays and reports are normally assessed according to three criteria: Adherence to the brief.

Astronomy 110 laboratory: student guide

Does the essay contain thenecessary material? Does it not contain unwanted material,such as extraneous waffle or unnecessary tables of data? Is thebalance between sections right? Is the material factually correct? Is it well explained, at the appropriate level? Language and style 23 Aug 2007 - If you get frustrated, you will have to find your own motivation to keep you to use your own words in writing your observing log and lab reports..

Is the essaywritten in good English, with no spelling mistakes or grammaticalerrors? Is the English style appropriate? Does the essay read well,with a good structure and flow? There is some overlap here: both "necessary content" and "appropriatestyle" depend on the brief, so often "Adherence to brief" will notappear as a separate category but will be implicitly included in themarking criteria for the other categories.

"Content" may besubdivided: for example, in a lab report the presentation of the datais very important, so it may well be listed as a category in its ownright. The exact balance of marks between categories depends on thenature of the assignment: for example, if you are asked to writesomething very specific, such as a book review or a Nature 'News andViews' article, the marks allocated to appropriateness of style willbe higher than usual.

Please note that you will lose marks for poor English: spellingmistakes, bad sentence structure and inability to use apostrophes arenot acceptable at this level. There are two reasons for this: Grammatical errors can often make the meaning of a passage unclearor ambiguous.

Scientific writing is about conveying difficultconcepts as clearly and accurately as possible, so anything thatreduces clarity is undesirable.

Poor writing style reflects badly on the writer In an assessed essay or report, the target audience should be specified in the instructions: your lab reports are to be written for a scientifically trained reader who .

It makes youlook uneducated, and/or careless and sloppy, neither of which inspiresconfidence in the reader. This may have consequences in later life:if a company personnel office receives 100 applications for a graduatepost, and has to whittle these down to a shortlist of 10 forinterview, a covering letter that is full of spelling mistakes andgrammatical errors makes a good excuse for consigning that applicationto the 'reject' pile.

If you have dyslexia, or your first language isnot English, we will take this into account if we know aboutit. Make sure that the Departmental Office has copies of therelevant documentation, and put a note on the cover of any assessedwork handed in.

If you have not been diagnosed as dyslexic, but theperson who marked your essay suggests that you might be, don't take itas a personal insult – see the Disability and Dyslexia Support Service to arrange a dyslexia test. If you arediagnosed as dyslexic, this will be taken into account in yourassessment throughout your university career – for example, you willbe given extra time in examinations.

If you have difficulties with English, whether caused by dyslexia,not being a native speaker, or simply poor teaching at school, do makeuse of the University's Writing AdvisoryService, run by the English Language Teaching Centre.

Take yourdraft essay, or the mangled remains of one that did not fare well atthe hands of the marker, to your WAS appointment and a specialistwriting tutor will go through it with you and help you to improve yourskills In order to write good lab reports, it is important to understand exactly what is You must determine the important information, learn it, and be able to reproduce..

laboratory reportsMuch of the above applies equally to a formal laboratory report:you should read the brief, identify your audience, decide what you'regoing to write, and plan your report; you will be assessed onadherence to the brief, content, language and style. Specificinstructions on writing a laboratoryreport, together with an example, willbe handed out in the lab sessions, or can be downloaded as pdf filesby clicking on the links.

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